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White matter includes all of the nerves, and much of the interior of the brain and spinal cord.Grey matter is found in clusters of neurons in the brain and spinal cord, and in cortical layers that line their surfaces.It controls the mouthparts, the salivary glands and certain muscles.Many arthropods have well-developed sensory organs, including compound eyes for vision and antennae for olfaction and pheromone sensation.Recent findings indicate that glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, serve as important resident immune cells within the central nervous system.The vertebrate nervous system can also be divided into areas called grey matter ("gray matter" in American spelling) and white matter.
The head segment contains the brain, also known as the supraesophageal ganglion.
The neurons that give rise to nerves do not lie entirely within the nerves themselves—their cell bodies reside within the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral ganglia Glial cells (named from the Greek for "glue") are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system.
In the human brain, it is estimated that the total number of glia roughly equals the number of neurons, although the proportions vary in different brain areas.
In the insect nervous system, the brain is anatomically divided into the protocerebrum, deutocerebrum, and tritocerebrum.
Immediately behind the brain is the subesophageal ganglion, which is composed of three pairs of fused ganglia.